Methylphenidate is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Learn about side effects, interactions and indications. Риталин — стимулятор центральной нервной системы, который используется для лечения синдрома дефицита внимания и гиперактивности, нарколепсии и первичной гиперсомнии в США и некоторых странах Европейского союза. Метилфенидат – лекарственный препарат или наркотик? Описание сфер применения, основные пути распространения и борьба с зависимостью. Метилфенидат и его аналоги. Применение в медицинских целях Мнения психиатров из разных стран по поводу метилфенидата сильно разошлись. The GoodRx website correctly points out that short-term refills e. Противопоказания. Ускоряется рост мышечных тканей на фоне улучшения восстановительных процессов. Улучшается проработанность мускулатуры, более четкий рельеф. Слышал кто или. Горячая линия, бесплатно и круглосуточно.
Пространства имён Статья Обсуждение. Moreover, many of these molecular changes identified are now directly linked to the structural, physiological and behavioral changes observed following chronic drug exposure 60,95,97, Amphetamine and its derivatives like methamphetamine are weak base compounds that are the only widely used class of drugs known to elicit transmitter release by a non-exocytic mechanism.
По мере нарастания дозировки повышается вероятность не только психологического, но и физического привыкания. Some of these proposed interventions have limitations or are in their infancy Studies with juvenile rats have also indicated that repeated exposure to methylphenidate does not necessarily lead to enhanced drug-seeking behavior in adulthood Доступные исследования показывают, что метилфенидат может быть осмысленно использован в случае дефицита внимания и гиперактивности у детей и подростков, как правило, в рамках мультимодальной терапии. Nature Reviews. Традиционные программы реабилитации наркозависимых включают, как правило, медикаментозную заместительную терапию.
USFDA-commissioned studies from indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events sudden deathheart attackand stroke and the medical use of methylphenidate or other ADHD stimulants. Но, думаю, они скоро почувствуют какое-то усиление, через недельку-две, — говорит. В году в США разгорелся большой скандал, который инициировали родители детей, принимавших препарат и покончивших жизнь самоубийством. Methylphenidate has the potential to induce euphoria due to its pharmacodynamic effect i. However, meta analysis of available data suggests that treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs may have a significant protective effect, reducing the risk for addictive substance use 36, Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology. Positron emission tomography PET demonstrates that methylphenidate decreases regional cerebral blood flow in the doroslateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex while improving performance of a spatial working memory task. New York: Springer. Figures for both the racemic and the dextrorotary enantiomers are given: . Four isomers of methylphenidate are possible, since the molecule has two chiral centers. This is reflected in the increased, stable and long-lasting level of sensitivity to cocaine and other drugs, and tendency to relapse even after long periods of abstinence.
Ethylphenidate also known as EPH is a novel stimulant substance of the phenidate class that produces traditional stimulant effects when administered.
It is a closely related analog of methylphenidate brand names Ritalin, Concerta. The two substances have very similar pharmacological mechanisms but discernible differences in their subjective effects with ethylphenidate often considered to be recreational. Ethylphenidate is most commonly distributed as a research chemical by online vendors, due to its grey-area legal status in certain countries.
Ethylphenidate is a synthetic molecule of the substituted phenethylamine and substituted phenidate classes. It contains a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino -NH2 group through an ethyl chain. Additionally, it contains an ethyl acetate bound to R 2 or its structure. Ethylphenidate is structurally differed to methylphenidate by elongation of the carbon chain. Ethyl- regards the side chain of two carbon atoms, phen- indicates the phenyl ring, id- is contracted from a piperidine ring, and -ate indicates the acetate group containing the oxygens.
Ethylphenidate is a chiral compound, presumably produced as a racemic mixture. Ethylphenidate acts as both a dopamine reuptake inhibitor and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor , meaning it effectively boosts the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
It has been found that ethylphenidate is more selective to the dopamine transporter DAT than methylphenidate , having approximately the same efficacy as the parent compound,  but with significantly less activity on the norepinephrine transporter NET. Figures for both the racemic and the dextrorotary enantiomers are given: . Ethylphenidate can be formed within the body in the liver , when alcohol and methylphenidate are co-ingested. The general headspace of ethylphenidate is described by many as one of extreme mental stimulation, increased focus, and powerful euphoria.
It contains a large number of typical stimulant cognitive effects. Although negative side effects are usually mild at low to moderate dosages, they become increasingly likely to manifest themselves with higher amounts or extended usage. This particularly holds true during the offset of the experience. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index SEI , a literature which relies on collected anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors.
As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death. There are currently anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational ethylphenidate use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown.
This is because ethylphenidate has a very limited history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried ethylphenidate within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly but nothing can be completely guaranteed.
It is worth noting that ethylphenidate crystals are particularly abrasive and somewhat caustic to mucous membranes.
Careless use will deteriorate the chosen routes of administration so it is important to practice routine maintenance such as soaking the sinus cavity with water prior to and following insufflation. It will also irritate lung tissue if inhaled, resulting in the production of phlegm and an irritated cough. It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance. As with other stimulants , the chronic use of ethylphenidate can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users.
When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. Tolerance to many of the effects of ethylphenidate develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline in the absence of further consumption.
Among countries with the highest rates of use of methylphenidate medication is Iceland,  where research shows that the drug was the most commonly abused substance among intravenous substance abusers. Treatment of ADHD by way of methylphenidate has led to legal actions, including malpractice suits regarding informed consent , inadequate information on side effects, misdiagnosis, and coercive use of medications by school systems.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Medication of the stimulant class. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Top: this depicts the initial effects of high dose exposure to an addictive drug on gene expression in the nucleus accumbens for various Fos family proteins i.
See also: List of methylphenidate analogues. Methylphenidate synthesis. Method 1: Methylphenidate preparation elucidated by Axten et al. Method 2: Classic methylphenidate synthesis . Method 3: Another synthesis route of methylphenidate which applies Darzens reaction to obtain aldehyde as an intermediate.
This route is significant for its selectivity. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 19 December Elsevier Health Sciences. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Pubchem Compound. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Biological Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. Academic Press. Pharmaceutical Journal. Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 30 January Current Opinion in Pharmacology.
Expert Rev Neurother. North Am. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Is methylphenidate useful for treating adolescents with ADHD? The Journal of Family Practice. Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 30 April In Millichap, JG ed.
New York: Springer. CNS Drugs. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be associated with a number of serious adverse events as well as a large number of non-serious adverse events in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 12 November Child Adolesc. J Clin Psychiatry. A Meta-analytic Review of the Literature". Harm Reduction Journal. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics.
Handbook of adolescent health care. Curr Psychiatry Rep. Hum Psychopharmacol. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated.
Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers improving PFC-dependent function.
Archived from the original on 19 September Retrieved 14 November Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. The results of this meta-analysis Therapeutic relatively low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those with ADHD.
Positron emission tomography PET demonstrates that methylphenidate decreases regional cerebral blood flow in the doroslateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex while improving performance of a spatial working memory task.
This suggests that cortical networks that normally process spatial working memory become more efficient in response to the drug. At abused relatively high doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks JS Online.
Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 2 December Sports Med. United States Food and Drug Administration. Archived PDF from the original on 23 June Retrieved 23 June Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc. October Archived PDF from the original on 14 July Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original on 2 January Canadian Family Physician. Pharmaceutical Research. Archived from the original PDF on 20 July Optometry Clinics.
March Archives of Disease in Childhood. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science. Clinical Neuropharmacology. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 4 November International Journal of Clinical Practice. May International Programme on Chemical Safety. Archived from the original on 23 June The management of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on interruption of the sympathomimetic syndrome with judicious use of benzodiazepines.
In cases where agitation, delirium, and movement disorders are unresponsive to benzodiazepines, second-line therapies include antipsychotics such as ziprasidone or haloperidol, central alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine, or propofol. Swiss Med Wkly.
Bibcode : PNAS Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience. Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also abused, although it is far less potent.
Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic Chapter 2 , and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy Chapter Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction, especially when they are rapidly administered or when high-potency forms are given.
Bibcode : PNAS.. Despite decades of clinical use of methylphenidate for ADHD, concerns have been raised that long-term treatment of children with this medication may result in subsequent drug abuse and addiction. However, meta analysis of available data suggests that treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs may have a significant protective effect, reducing the risk for addictive substance use 36, Studies with juvenile rats have also indicated that repeated exposure to methylphenidate does not necessarily lead to enhanced drug-seeking behavior in adulthood However, the recent increase of methylphenidate use as a cognitive enhancer by the general public has again raised concerns because of its potential for abuse and addiction 3, 6— Thus, although oral administration of clinical doses of methylphenidate is not associated with euphoria or with abuse problems, nontherapeutic use of high doses or i.
Substance Abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 1 July The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. Archived from the original PDF on 15 December Drug and Alcohol Review. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process : the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction.
Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict. Moreover, many of these molecular changes identified are now directly linked to the structural, physiological and behavioral changes observed following chronic drug exposure 60,95,97, Some of these proposed interventions have limitations or are in their infancy However, it is hoped that some of these preliminary findings may lead to innovative treatments, which are much needed in addiction.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. This is reflected in the increased, stable and long-lasting level of sensitivity to cocaine and other drugs, and tendency to relapse even after long periods of abstinence.
These newly constructed networks function very efficiently via new pathways as soon as drugs of abuse are further taken In this way, the induction of CDK5 gene expression occurs together with suppression of the G9A gene coding for dimethyltransferase acting on the histone H3. A feedback mechanism can be observed in the regulation of these 2 crucial factors that determine the adaptive epigenetic response to cocaine.
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Can J Clin Pharmacol. British Journal of Pharmacology. Journal of Attention Disorders. JAMA Psychiatry. September The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD.
These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood.
Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure. Neural Plasticity. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Archived from the original on 17 October Journal of Neurochemistry. Basal Ganglia. Despite the challenges in determining synaptic vesicle pH, the proton gradient across the vesicle membrane is of fundamental importance for its function.
Exposure of isolated catecholamine vesicles to protonophores collapses the pH gradient and rapidly redistributes transmitter from inside to outside the vesicle.
Amphetamine and its derivatives like methamphetamine are weak base compounds that are the only widely used class of drugs known to elicit transmitter release by a non-exocytic mechanism.
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Berlin London: Springer. Archived from the original PDF on 24 August Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 12 October
Retrieved 26 July Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug harmfulness Effects of cannabis Addiction Dependence Prevention Opioid replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking of tobacco or other substances. US Food and Drug Administration. Медикаментозная терапия при отравлении алкоголем руб.
Гипноз и психотерапевтическая блокировка руб. Лазеротерапия руб. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose. Симптомы должны сохраняться в течение более 6 месяцев и наблюдаться до 7 лет. В году в США разгорелся большой скандал, который инициировали родители детей, принимавших препарат и покончивших жизнь самоубийством.
Available for Android and iOS devices. The most important chemical compounds: a reference guide. Иногда настроение диаметрально противоположное — бессонница, тревога.
Narcolepsya chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and uncontrollable sleep, is treated primarily with stimulants. Да, мой пароль: Забыли пароль? Кристалл лёд.
Они утверждают, что можно контролировать такое лекарство, как риталин, что это не наркотик, а стимулятор. Available for Android and iOS devices. Swiss Med Wkly.
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Fluvoxaminemaleaat Genthon. Оставьте заявку на бесплатную консультацию. Метилфенидат наркотик синтезировали в года, а с году его стали давать в США деткам с гиперактивностью.
Britannica онлайн. Анализ крови на наркотики руб. Метилфенидат лат. Смертельно опасно! Тема в разделе " Производители ", создана пользователем Fabio Constantin13 дек У обоих детей не было признаков депрессии, и мысли о самоубийстве, наблюдавшиеся у них, не могут быть объяснены импульсивным поведением .
Follow the directions on your medicine label. Хотя полезные эффекты риталина привлекательны, они часто являются временными и неустойчивыми в течение длительного времени. Необходимая скорость может быть достигнута практически только при интраназальном или внутривенном введении медикамента. It is worth noting that ethylphenidate crystals are particularly abrasive and somewhat caustic to mucous membranes. Консультация профильного специалиста терапевт, хирург, кардиолог руб. Все виды наркотика делают из таблеток, выпущенных на фармацевтических фабриках. Закладка Мефедрона Рыбинск Узнать стоимость лечения зависимости от Метилфенидата риталина Каждый случай зависимости - индивидуален. Подшика от наркотиков Продетоксон руб. Первичный осмотр в клинике анамнез, анализ крови, кардиограмма, психодиагностика. Archived PDF from the original on 2 February Klinische Wochenschrift.
Methylphenidate is most active at modulating levels of dopamine DA and to a lesser extent norepinephrine. Нервная система : эмоциональное возбуждение, беспокойство, нервные тики, усталость, раздражительность и головокружение. Some brands of methylphenidate should be taken at least 30 minutes before a meal. You may have blood circulation problems that can cause numbness, pain, or discoloration in your fingers or toes. Psychostimulants in the treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD: part I—acute risks and psychological effects.
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